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Table of Contents

Preface xi
The Vygotskian Metaphor: Water xi
   Dialectics xii
The Overriding Theme xiii
Visually Vygotsky: A Road Map for Readers xiii
What Is New about Vygotsky? xiv
Introduction xv
Remembering My Father, by Gita L. Vygodskaya xv
Remembering Our Friend, by His Colleagues xvi
Vygotsky and His Times xvii
   Historical Beginnings: A Brief Look at the Background   of Vygotsky xvii
Development of Consciousness: A Search for a New Psychology xxi
Psychology to Pedagogy xxii
Meeting Our Distant Mentor: Joan Meets Vygotsky xxiii
Meeting Our Distant Mentor: Le Meets Vygotsky xxvii
Conclusion xxx
PART ONE Why Vygotsky? 1
Why Do We Do What We Do? 1
Thought at the Turn of the Century: 1900 2
Thought at the Turn of the Century: 2000 3
Evolution of Thought: 1900 to 2000 4
Conclusion 4
Endnote Classic and Official Timelines 5
   1 Theorizing Theories and Thinking Thoughts 7
Why We Juxtapose Theories and Theorists 8
   Finding Answers in a Historical Journey 8
   Multiple Perspectives to Multiple Learners 9
   Transmission Lens: Behaviorism/positivism 9
   Generative Lens: Cognitive to Interactionist   to Constructivist 11
   Transformative Lens: Social Constructionist 12
   Transforming Transformative: Critical Pedagogy 13
   Theory is Practice: Example Lessons 14
   Journals: Reflections on Theory to Practice 16
   Classroom Application of Learning Theories 17
Searching for a New Psychology 21
   Psychology to Pedagogy 24
   A Vygotskian Perspective on the Work of Piaget 24
   Vygotsky: Learning First, Then Development 25
   Vygotsky: Active Use of Language 28
   Major Points of Child Development: Vygotsky/Piaget 30
Multiple Perspective for Multiple Realities 35
Conclusion 37
Endnotes 38
PART TWO Three Principal Principles 39
   2 Thought and Language 41
Thinking about Words 41
The Vygotskian Venn Diagram 42
Expanding the Venn Diagram 43
Cognitive Development and Language 47
   Autumn Leaves 48
   Unless It’s Just a Language Thing 50
   Andrea and Art: More than Just a Language Thing 51
   Excerpt page 54-55
Framework for Critical Praxis 55
   A Papi’s Problem Posing 56
   Pat’s Problem Solving 57
Conclusion 59
Endnote 59
   3 Sociocultural Teaching and Learning 60
Two Senses of the Term Social 60
Socioculturally Learning and Developing 62
   A Puzzle of Learning 63
Classrooms as Cultures 64
The Puzzle of Pedro 65
   High-Stakes Testing 68
   Going to the Movies 69
Sam: A Teaching Time Line 71
The Sociocultural and Pedagogical Puzzle 72
The Pedagogical and Political Puzzle 73
Manuel: To Name, to Reflect Critically, to Act 74
What Oscar Taught Retta 76
Blame the Victim 76
Structure for Success 77
   Retta and Success 80
Library Mapping 81
Conclusion 83
Endnotes 84
   4 The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) 85
What is the Zone of Proximal Development? 86
Visualizing the ZPD 87
   A Metaphor: A Hot Air Balloon Ride 87
What Is Development? 87
Interpersonal-Intrapersonal Communication 91
Scientific and Spontaneous Concepts 91
   Spontaneous Concepts in the Community 92
   Scientific Concepts in the Schools 93
   The Integration of Spontaneous and Scientific Concepts 93
Performance before Competence 95
   Learning Leads Development 96
What Are Funds of Knowledge? 97
   Models of Parental Involvement 100
Expanding the ZPD in Schools 102
   The Peace Patrol 103
   Mumbo-Jumbo Theory 104
   More ZPD in the Classroom 107
   Who Really Is the More Capable Peer? 109
Cognitively Slipping in the Zone 110
   Safety within the ZPD 110
   Regression within the ZPD 111
Children at Play Children at Play thru page 115 112
   Performances of Knowing 114
Assessment and ZPD 114
Conclusion 115
Endnotes 116
PART THREE A Construction of Community 117
Faltis’s Framework 117
Endnote 121
   5 Intersubjectivity, Intertextuality, Intercontextuality, and Consequential Progressions 123
A Cognitive Coathook: Missing the Plane for New York 124
Demonstrating Complex Constructs 125
Social: Two Senses of Meaning 126
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 127
   A Metaphor: A Hall of Mirrors 127
InterS: Intersubjectivity 128
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 128
   What Happens When People Talk? 128
   What Can Happen When Students and Teachers Talk 130
   Into the Classroom with the Watermelon Investigation 130
InterS ≡ InterT + InterC 132
InterT: Intertextuality 132
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 133
InterC: Intercontextuality 134
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 134
Consequential Progressions 135
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 135
   Text is Talk; Talk is Text 136
   Talk as It Relates to Consequential Progressions 136
   Theory Is Practice: Amy, Le, and Jo 137
The Bill of Rights and Responsibilities 137
Implications for Pull-Out Programs 142
Conclusion 144
   6 Beyond Vygotsky 147
A Definition of Terms Used 148
Related Terms 154
Conclusion 154
Endnote 155
   7 Mentoring: Vygotsky’s Vision Extended 156
Cultural Competency for Transformative Education 157
Gallavan Cultural Competencies Model 158
   Information, Access, and Opportunity 159
   Potential Sources and Consequential Outcomes 159
Serendipitous Meeting of Minds: LeAnn Reflects 160
LeAnn’s Journal Reflection Continues 163
Years Later: The Mentoring Continues 164
New Directions: Our Mentoring Grows and Changes 166
Summary 166
References 169
Index 175